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Glossary of Coral Reef Terminology - Q

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q. v. - which see (quod vide)

q.e. - which is (quod est)

Image of scientist conducting a quadrat survey

Scientist conducting a quadrat survey.

quadrat - a square or rectangular sampling unit of known area (e.g.,1 m2) within which organisms are counted or measured. Quadrats can be used to estimate the percent cover of each species or other reef components and obtain information about density, abundance, colony size, and biodiversity

quadrate - square-shaped

qualitative analysis - the analysis of a phenomenon to determine its qualitative characteristics versus its quantitative characteristics, i.e., characteristics for which precise numerical characterization is not appropriate

quanta meter - an instrument used to measure the number of photons

quantitative analysis - the analysis of a phenomenon that uses environmental variables represented by numbers or ranges, often accomplished by numerical modelling or statistical analysis

quantitative inheritance   - inheritance of measurable traits (height, weight, color intensity, etc.) that depend on the cumulative action of many genes.

quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) - real-time quantitative PCR is a highly sensitive method that utilizes small sample sizes and short experimental time frames for quantifying RNA, DNA and proteins. QPCR is especially useful for evaluating "RNA fingerprints" obtained from microarray or siRNA experiments. It allows quantification of starting amounts of DNA, cDNA, or RNA templates. QPCR is based on the detection of a fluorescent reporter molecule that increases as PCR product accumulates with each cycle of amplification. Fluorescent reporter molecules include dyes that bind double-stranded DNA (i.e. SYBR Green I) or sequence–specific probes (i.e. Molecular Beacons or TaqMan® Probes)

quantum - the smallest ‘unit’ of energy. The amount of energy in a quantum depends on the frequency of the radiation carrying the energy; it is equal to the frequency (in hertz) multiplied by Planck's constant, 6.626 069 x 10-34 joule-second. A quantum of light is called a photon

quasi - as if; seemingly; in a manner

Quaternary period - the second period of the Cenozoic era containing the Pleistocene epoch and the Holocene epoch, and dating from 1.8 million years to the present

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